Centre of Research Excellence for Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Rural & Remote Communities



Chief Investigator: Professor Robyn McDermott, email: robyn.mcdermott@unisa.edu.au

CRE Manager / co-ordinator: Madeleine Mallee- UniSA, email: madeleine.mallee@unisa.edu.au

Policy context

Very high rates of diabetes, heart and renal disease and preventable complications from these, continue among people in rural and remote areas, particularly Indigenous Australians. There is now good evidence for the effectiveness of primary care-based interventions to prevent progression of established disease, and also prevent new disease in people at high risk. There are many different approaches to PHC service delivery in remote communities, often with a combination of resident and outreach clinical and health promotion staff. What is not known is how well these various models of care translate into improved health outcomes in clients, particularly in keeping people out of hospital by preventing disease progression.

Important questions include: What are the main characteristics of chronic care employed by the services and how is implementation fidelity monitored? What is behind the variation in quality of care as measured by audits, and does this affect health outcomes? What is the contribution of good information and reporting systems to quality of chronic care? How do different kinds of staffing models contribute to outcomes?


This Centre brings together researchers and clinicians who collectively have experience in remote health care, clinical epidemiology, chronic disease prevention and management, health promotion, economics, policy development, program implementation and evaluation, and who have extensive clinical and research networks. The Centre is supported by international and national experts in primary care and chronic disease prevention and will generate new knowledge directly relevant to policy, as well as encouraging young and novice researchers into this important multidisciplinary field.

The Centre will employ a ‘mixed methods’ approach. In particular the Centre will:

  • Establish whole-of-service cohort studies by enrolling at least 80% of adult clients with identified chronic conditions and risk factors (with informed consent) and tracking them through the health care system prospectively. Researchers aim to link PHC, selected pathology, hospitalisations, MBS, PBS and death registers. Over time, researchers will be able to measure how different service models contribute to critical care processes (checks, active management including smoking cessation, quality use of medicines) and outcomes (progression of disease especially renal function; preventable hospitalisations and deaths).
  • Utilise a continuous quality improvement approach in a participatory action framework to clarify aspects of PHC service models which appear to be important from the evidence and from interviews with clients and staff and assess whether various aspects of the models of care are implemented as planned and how these line up with effective community prevention activities.
  • Look at value for money: how do budgetary and staffing inputs relate to health outcomes.
  • Look at how well the workforce mix lines up with the needs of the community.

Researchers will work closely with eight regional communities in SA and Queensland to answer these questions. Findings will be used to inform current and new policy for nutrition, health promotion and clinical services.


  1. Robertson J, Stevenson L, Usher K, Devine S, Clough A. A Review of Trends in Indigenous Australian Tobacco Research (From 2004 to 2013), its Associated Outputs and Evidence of Research Translation. Nicotine Tob Res. 17(8):1039-48.doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv018, 2015.
  2. van Gaans D, D’Onise K, Cardone T, McDermott R. The Development of the Public Health Research Data Management System. electronic Journal of Health Informatics. 9(1):e10, 2015.
  3. Clough AR, Fitts M, Robertson J. Recent warnings of a rise in crystal methamphetamine ("ice") use in rural and remote Indigenous Australian communities should be heeded. Med J Aust. 203(1):19, 2015.
  4. Hays R, Esterman A, Giacomin P, Loukas A, McDermott R. Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 107(3):355-61, 2015.
  5. Li M, McDermott R. Smoking, poor nutrition, and sexually transmitted infections associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in remote North Queensland Indigenous communities, 1998-2005. BMC Women's Health. 15:31.doi: 10.1186/s12905-015-0188-z, 2015.
  6. McDermott RA, Schmidt B, Preece C, Owens V, Taylor S, Li M, Esterman A. Community health workers improve diabetes care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: results of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Serv Res. 15:68. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0695-5, 2015.
  7. Johnson DR, McDermott RA, Clifton P, D'Onise K, Taylor SM, Preece CL and Schmidt BA. Characteristics of Indigenous adults with poorly controlled diabetes in north Queensland: implications for services. BMC Public Health. 15:325. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1660-2, 2015.
  8. Hays R, Esterman A, and McDermott R. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis treatment failure in Australian aboriginals. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease, 9 (8). pp. 1-10, 2015.
  9. Hays R, and McDermott R. Strongyloides stercoralis infection and antenatal care. Medical Journal of Australia, 203 (1). i-ii, 2015.
  10. Harriss L, Dey A, Thompson F, and McDermott R. Cairns Hospital Emergency Department presentations: 12-Month report 2013-2014. Report. Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia, 2015.
  11. Usher K, Clough A, Woods C, and Robertson J. Is there an ice epidemic in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24 (4). pp. 283-285, 2015.
  12. Stevens B, Buttner P, Watt K, Clough A, Brimblecombe J, and Judd J. The effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women and child physical growth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maternal and Child Nutrition. 11(4):415-32, 2015. 
  13. Miller A., Massey P.D., Judd J., Kelly J., Durrheim D.N., Clough A.R., Speare R., and Saggers S. Using a participatory action research framework to listen to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia about pandemic influenza. Rural and Remote Health, 15. pp. 1-10, 2015.
  14. Clough AR., and Bird K. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia). International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (4). pp. 345-351, 2015.
  15. Gould GS, Watt K, McEwen A, Cadet-James Y, and Clough, AR. Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 5. pp. 1-10, 2015.
  16. Gould GS, Watt K, Cadet-James Y, and Clough, AR. Using the risk behaviour diagnosis scale to understand Australian Aboriginal smoking — a cross-sectional validation survey in regional New South Wales. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2. pp. 4-9, 2015.
  17. Li M, and McDermott RObesity, Albuminuria, and Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Predict Incidence of Hypertension in Indigenous Australians in Rural and Remote Communities in Northern Australia. Journal of Hypertension 33.4: 704–710, 2015.
  18. Schmidt B, Campbell S, McDermott R. Community Health Workers as chronic care coordinators: A process evaluation of an Australian Indigenous primary health care program in six communities in far north Queensland. ANZ Journal of Public Health. DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12480, 2015.
  19. Fitts M, West C,  Robertson J, Robertson K, Roberts N, Honorato B, Clough A. The NHMRC Road Map 'benchmark' principles: A formal evaluation process is needed to improve their application. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39:4. 305-308, 2015.
  20. van Gaans D, Hugo G, Tonkin A. The development of a spatial model of accessibility to phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation programs. Journal of Spatial Science. DOI:10.1080/14498596.2015.1059375, 2015.
  21. Clough A, Robertson J, Fitts M, Lawson K, Bird K, Hunter E et al. Impacts of meth/amphetamine, other drugs and alcohol in rural and remote areas in Northern and north-east Queensland: as environmental scan. James Cook University. ISBN 978-0-9942333-6-3, 2015.
  22. Woods, C., Usher, K., Edwards, A., Jersmann, H. & Maguire, G.. The tyranny of distance-mapping accessibility to polysomnography services across Australia. Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 15(3), 2015.
  23. Thomas DP, Panaretto KS, Stevens M, Borland R. Dependence in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers. Med J Aust., 202(10):S39-44, 2015.
  24. Thomas DP, Briggs VL, Couzos S, Panaretto KS, van der Sterren AE, Stevens M, Borland R. Use of nicotine replacement therapy and stop-smoking medicines in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and ex-smokers. Med J Aust., 202(10):S78-84, 2015.
  25. Thomas DP, Bennet PT, Briggs VL, Couzos S, Hunt JM, Panaretto KS, Stevens M, Borland R. Smoking cessation advice and non-pharmacological support in a national sample of aboriginal and torres strait islander smokers and ex-smokers. Med J Aust., 202(10):S73-7, 2015.
  26. Thomas DP, Briggs VL, Couzos S, Davey ME, Hunt JM, Panaretto KS, van der Sterren AE, Stevens M, Nicholson AK, Borland R. Research methods of talking about the smokes: an international tobacco control policy evaluation project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Med J Aust., 202(10):S5-12, 2015.
  27. Thomas DP, Davey ME, Panaretto KS, Hunt JM, Stevens M, van der Sterren AE. Smoking among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health service staff. Med J Aust., 202(10):S85-9, 2015.
  28. Thomas DP, Panaretto KS, Stevens M, Bennet PT, Borland R. Smoke-free homes and workplaces of a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Med J Aust., 202(10):S33-8, 2015.
  29. D’Onise K, McDermott RA, Lynch JW. ‘Center based preschool programs: systematic review of child and adult health outcomes’ in Reynolds AJ, Rolnick AJ, Temple JA, Health and Health Education in Early Childhood: Predictors, Intervention and Policies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2014, pp. 145-200. Book Chapter 7
  30. Li M, McDermott R. Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study. BMC nephrology, 16 (1): 208, 2015.
  31. Roe YL, Esterman A, McDermott R, Zeitz C. The management of Indigenous patients presenting with non ST‐segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in South Australia: a retrospective cohort study. Internal medicine journal, DOI: 10.1111/imj.12949, 2015. 
  32. Krieg A, Guthrie J, Levy M, Segal L. What’s health got to do with it? - Reforming justice for Indigenous Australian communities.  MJA, in press, accepted December 2015.
  33. Sushames A, Edwards AM, Thompson F, McDermott R, Gebel K. 2016. Validity and reliability of Fitbit Flex for step count, moderate to vigorous physical activity in laboratory and free-living conditions Public Library of Science Plos ONE, 11(9)1-14.  DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0161224
  34. Tracey E, McDermott R, McDonald M. 2016. Do worms protect against the metabolic syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, (120)209-220.  DOI 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.08.014
  35. Muhlhausler BS, Yelland LN, McDermott R, Tapsell L, McPhee A, Gibson RA, Makrides M. 2016. DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (103)1489-1496 DOI 10.3945/ajcn.115.126714
  36. Ming Li, Robyn McDermott. 2016. High absolute risk of severe infections among Indigenous adults in rural northern Australia is amplified by diabetes - a 7 year follow up study. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 30(6) 1069-1073. DOI 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.04.022
  37. Maple-Brown LJ, Hughes JT, Ritte R, Barzi F, Hoy WE, Lawton PD, Jones GRD, Death E, Simmonds A, Sinha AK, Cherian S, Thomas MAB, McDermott R, Brown ADH, O'Dea K, Jerums G, Cass A, MacIsaac RJ. 2016. Progression of Kidney Disease in Indigenous Australians: The eGFR Follow-up Study. American Society of Nephrology, 11(6) 993-1004. DOI 10.2215/CJN.09770915
  38. Ritte R, Luke J, Nelson C, Brown A, O'Dea K, Jenkins A, Best JD, McDermott R, Daniel M, Rowley K. 2016. Clinical outcomes associated with albuminuria in central Australia: a cohort study. BMC Nephrology 17:113.  DOI 10.1186/s12882-016-0328-1
  39. Segal L, Nguyen H, Wenitong M, Schmidt B, McDermott R. 2016. Economic evaluation of Indigenous health worker management of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Medical Journal of Australia 204(5)196.e1:196.e9. DOI 10.5694/mja15.00598
  40. Taylor S, Thompson F and McDermott R. 2016. Barriers to insulin treatment among Australian Torres Strait Islanders with poorly controlled diabetes. The Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24(6) 363:370. DOI 10.1111/ajr.12315
  41. Esterman A, Fountaine T, McDermott R. 2016. Are General Practice characteristics predictors of good glycaemic control in their patients with diabetes – a cross-sectional study. Medical Journal of Australia 204(1) 23.e1-e6.  DOI 10.5694/mja15.00739
  42. Hays R, Thompson F, Esterman A, McDermott R. 2016. Strongyloides stercoralis, eosinophilia and type two diabetes mellitus: the predictive value of eosinophilia in the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in an endemic community. Open Forum Infect Diseases, 3(1):ofw029.  DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofw029
  43. Taylor S, McDermott R, Thompson F, and Usher, K. 2016. Depression and diabetes in the remote Torres Strait Islands. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 28, 59-66.  DOI 10.1071/HE15118
  44. Taylor S, and McDermott R. 2016. High glycaemia and low uptake of insulin treatment among remote Torres Strait Islanders with diabetes: implications for service delivery. Australian Journal of Rural Health 24, 422-423.   DOI 10.1111/ajr.12322
  45. Harris L, Thompson F, Dey A, Mills J, Watt K, McDermott R. 2016. When chronic conditions become emergencies – a report from regional Queensland Australian Journal of Rural Health 24(6) pp. 392-401  DOI 10.1111/ajr.12320
  46. Clough, Alan R., Margolis, Stephen A., Miller, Adrian, Shakeshaft, Anthony, Doran, Christopher M., McDermott, Robyn, Sanson-Fisher, Rob, Towle, Simon, Martin, David,Ypinazar, Valmae, Robertson, Jan A., Fitts, Michelle S., Bird, Katrina, Honorato, Bronwyn, and West, Caryn. 2016.  Alcohol control policies in Indigenous communities: a qualitative study of the perceptions of their effectiveness among service providers, stakeholders and community leaders in Queensland (Australia).  International Journal of Drug Policy, 36. 67-75 DOI 10.5694/mja15.00739
  47. van Gaans, D, Ahmed, S, D'Onise, K, Moyon, J, Caughey, G & McDermott, R. 2016. Modelling medications for public health research.  Journal of Public Health Informatics, 8(2)  e190.  DOI 10.5210/ojphi.v8i2.6809
  48. van Gaans D., Ahmed S., D’Onise K., Taylor SM., McDermott R, 2016.  Managing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data for Public Health Research, Journal of Public Health Informatics 8(3): e202.  DOI 10.5210/ojphi.v8i3.7055
  49. Gould, Gillian, Stevenson, Leah C., Cadet-James, Yvonne, and Clough, Alan R. 2016. Cultural challenges when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous Australians. Health Promotion International 1-11,  DOI 10.1093/heapro/daw072
  50. Usher, Kim, Woods, Cindy, Lynch, Paul, Pointing, Boris, Budden, Lea, Barker, Ruth, Catchpoole, Jesani, and Clough, Alan. 2016Is population flow an unintended consequence of alcohol management plans? Journal of Clinical Nursing 26, 668-677 DOI 10.1111/jocn.13534
  51. Stevens, Briony, Watt, Kerrianne, Brimbecombe, Julie, Clough, Alan, Judd, Jenni, and Lindsay, Daniel. 2016. The role of seasonality on the diet and household food security of pregnant women living in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. Public Health Nutrition 20(1) pp121-129. DOI 10.1017/S136898001600183X
  52. West, C., Usher, K., and Clough, A. 2016. Pormpuraaw injury surveillance report: injuries & alcohol management plans 2006-2011. Report, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.
  53. Stevens, Briony, Clough, Alan, Brimbecombe, Julie, Watt, Kerrianne, and Judd, Jenni. 2016.  The use of a modified version of Photovoice to identify maternal dietary consumption enablers and barriers in northern Bangladesh.  International Journal of Food, Nutrition and Public Health, 8 (1). pp. 1-19.
  54. Gould, Gillian S., Cadet-James, Yvonne, and Clough, Alan R. 2016.  Getting over the shock: taking action on Indigenous maternal smoking. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 22, 276-282.  DOI 10.1071/PY15066
  55. Fitts, Michelle S., Palk, Gavan R., Lennon, Alexia J., and Clough, Alan R. 2016.  The characteristics of young Indigenous drink drivers in Queensland, Australia. Traffic Injury Prevention. 8(3) DOI 10.1080/15389588.2016.1186273
  56. Bird, Katrina, Fitts, Michelle S., and Clough, Alan R. 2016.  Alcohol management plans in Indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia) may have unintended implications for the care of children.  Health & Justice 4:8. DOI 10.1186/s40352-016-0039-5
  57. Gould, Gillian Sandra, Watt, Kerrianne, West, Robert, Cadet-James, Yvonne, and Clough, Alan R. 2016.  Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the 'Smoking Risk Assessment TargetBMJ Open, 6:e010722. DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010722
  58. Honorato, Bronwyn, Caltabiano, Nerina, and Clough, Alan R. 2016. From trauma to incarceration: exploring the trajectory in a qualitative study in male prison inmates from north Queensland, Australia.  Health & Justice, 4 (3). DOI 10.1186/s40352-016-0034-x
  59. Coffey P, Condon J, Dempsey K, Guthridge S, Thompson F. 2016. A retrospective population-based study of induction of labour trends and associated factors among aboriginal and non-aboriginal mothers in the northern territory between 2001 and 2012  BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth  16:126 DOI 10.1186/s 12884-016-0899-7
  60. Fintan Thompson, K.Dempsey, G.Mishra. 2016. Trends in Indigenous and non-Indigenous caesarean section births in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1986–2012: a total population-based study.  BJOG 123:1814-1823.  DOI 10.1111/1471-0528.13881
  61. Agnew, T, Furber, G, Leach, M & Segal, L 2016. A comprehensive critique and review of published measures of acne severity, Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology 9(7) 40-52
  62. English, C, Shields, N, Brusco, NK, Taylor, NF, Watts, JJ, Peiris, C, Bernhardt, J, Crotty, M, Esterman, A, Segal, L & Hillier, S. 2016.  Additional weekend therapy may reduce length of rehabilitation stay after stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Journal of Physiotherapy 62, 124-129 DOI 10.1016/j.jphys.2016.05.015
  63. Furber, G, Leach, M, Guy, S & Segal, L. 2016. Developing a broad categorisation scheme to describe risk factors for mental illness, for use in prevention policy and planning Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 51(3) 230-240 . DOI 10.1177/0004867416642844
  64. Guy, S, Furber, G, Leach, M & Segal, L 2016.  How many children in Australia are at risk of adult mental illness? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(12), 1146-1160.  DOI 10.1177/0004867416640098
  65. Hanckel, J & Segal, L.2016. The Inspir=Ed project: a holistic early childhood program for enhancing parent-child well-being. Childhood Education, 92(1), pp. 10-21 DOI 10.1080/00094056.2016.1134236
  66. Nguyen, H, Ivers, R, Jan, S, Martiniuk, A, Segal, L & Pham, C. 2016. Cost and impoverishment 1 year after hospitalisation due to injuries: a cohort study in Thái Bình, Vietnam Injury Prevention, 22:33-39.  DOI 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041493
  67. Amarasena, N, Kapellas, K, Skilton, MR, Maple-Brown, LJ, Brown, A, Bartold, M, O'Dea, K, Celermajer, D & Jamieson, L. 2016. Factors associated with routine dental attendance among aboriginal Australians Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 67-80 DOI 10.1353/hpu.2016.0040
  68. Bogomolova, S, Zarnowiecki, D, Wilson, A, Fielder, A, Procter, N, Itsiopoulos, C, O'Dea, K, Strachan, J, Ballestrin, M, Champion, A & Parletta, N. 2016. Dietary intervention for people with mental illness in South Australia  Health Promotion International, 1-13  DOI 10.1093/heapro/daw055
  69. Chamberlain, CR, Oldenburg, B, Wilson, AN, Eades, SJ, O'Dea, K, Oats, J & Wolfe, R. 2016. Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: greater than fourfold risk among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian women.  Diabetes/Metabolism: Research and Reviews, 32(2), pp. 217-227  DOI 10.1002/dmrr.2715
  70. Ferguson, M, O'Dea, K, Chatfield, M, Moodie, M, Altman, J & Brimblecombe, J. 2016. The comparative cost of food and beverages at remote Indigenous communities, Northern Territory, Australia.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 40, no. S1, pp. S21-S26.  DOI 10.1111/1753-6405.12370
  71. Hughes, J, O'Dea, K, Piera, K, Barzi, F, Cass, A, Hoy, W, MacIsaac, R & Maple-Brown, L. 2016. Associations of serum adiponectin with markers of cardio-metabolic disease risk in Indigenous Australian adults with good health, diabetes and chronic kidney disease Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 10, 659-672  DOI 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.11.008
  72. McMahon, E, Webster, J, O'Dea, K & Brimblecombe, J. 2016. Dietary sodium and iodine in remote Indigenous Australian communities: Will salt-reduction strategies increase risk of iodine deficiency? A cross-sectional analysis and simulation study Energy balance-related behaviours. BMC Public Health, 15:1318.  DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-2686-1
  73. Parletta, N, Zarnowiecki, D, Cho, J, Wilson, A, Procter, N, Gordon, A, Bogomolova, S, O'Dea, K, Strachan, J, Ballestrin, M, Champion, A & Meyer, BJ. 2016.  People with schizophrenia and depression have a low omega-3 index Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 110, 42-47.  DOI 10.1016/j.plefa.2016.05.007
  74. Wycherley, T, Ferguson, M, O'Dea, K, McMahon, E, Liberato, S & Brimblecombe, J. 2016. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 40:569-71. DOI 10.1111/1753-6405.12571
  75. Zhang, A, Hughes, JT, Brown, A, Lawton, PD, Cass, A, Hoy, W, O'Dea, K & Maple-Brown, LJ. 2016. Resting heart rate, physiological stress and disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: analysis from a cross-sectional study.  BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 16:36, DOI 10.1186/s12872-016-0211-9 
  76. Panaretto, K.S., Dellit, A., Hollins, A., Wason, G., Sidhom, C., Chilcott, K., Malthouse, D., Andrews, S., Mein, J., Ahkee, B., and McDermott, R. 2016.  Understanding patient access patterns for primary health-care services for Aboriginal and Islander people in Queensland: a geospatial mapping approach.  Australian Journal of Primary Health. 23(1) 37-45. DOI 10.1071/PY15115
  77. Usher K, Foster K. 2016. Reflective practice for the graduate Transitions in Nursing: Preparing for Professional Practice, Book chapter pp. 277-292
  78. Mojapelo TD, Usher K, Mills J. 2016.  Effective pain management as part of palliative care for persons living with HIV/AIDS in a developing country: a qualitative study.  Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25 1598-1605. DOI 10.1111/jocn.13145
  79. Saunders V, Usher K, Tsey K, Bainbridge R. 2016.  If you knew the end of a story would you still want to hear it? Using research poems to listen to Aboriginal stories. Journal of Poetry Therapy, v.29 (1) 1-13 DOI 10.1080/08893675.2016.1133082
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